How should enterprises improve their innovation in the era of "Industry 4.0"

Introduction: Industry 4.0 is not just a revolution in manufacturing, but a more profound change. Innovation models, business models, service models, industry chains and value chains all revolutionize.

How should enterprises improve their innovation in the “Industry 4.0” era? China Machine Tool Network Release Time: December 23, 2015 Reading: 109 people [Comment] Merchants sell products, and users value the value of products brought to life, that is, to obtain a better quality of life by purchasing your products. What does a company's value creation mean? In a nutshell, it means that users like your product and are willing to pay for it. In the manufacturing system, uncertain factors that cannot be quantified and can not be mastered by corporate decision-makers. These uncertainties exist both in the manufacturing process and in the use of products. China’s manufacturing industry has always had vision and energy. Putting it on the visible issues, including dealing with visible problems and influencing factors in the production process, and competing to meet the visible needs of users. In the new environment of the fourth industrial revolution, companies must understand competition and innovation in these invisible worlds, including discovering invisible value gaps for users, and managing and avoiding invisible factors in manufacturing. For business operators, it is important to change the thinking of looking at problems from the technical end, to learn to think backwards, to find potential needs from the value side of users, and to learn the transformation of thinking.

Li Jie put forward two concepts of “master-control innovation” and “omelet model”, which provides a new perspective for enterprises to add intelligent software and analysis services to their products, so that they can be equipped for different needs. Application software can create more value for customers without changing the hardware design. This innovative model is often low cost and high return. The core is to create from the "invisible needs" of customers through "Internet of Things and Internet of Things" and "Information Physics System".

1. From the price of the Red Sea, John Deere is a traditional agricultural machinery manufacturing company in the United States. Low-priced agricultural machinery from China, Brazil and other countries has had a great impact on them after entering the United States. But what are the real values ​​of farmers in the options of agricultural machinery and crops? Maybe everyone would think that farmers need agricultural machinery, this is our traditional thinking, but if you think from the farmer's point of view, you will find that What farmers need is not agricultural machinery, but the management of soil quality and crop yields. Agricultural machinery is just a means for farmers to meet these needs. After understanding the real needs of the user, JohnDeere began to analyze the gap in user demand, so they found that the farmer relied on tutorials and experience in the process of soil loosening, irrigation and fertilization, but did not understand the true composition status of the soil. Therefore, there is no differential management and cultivation method for the entire land mortgage. After realizing the user's real demand gap, John Deere's thinking changed from the previous "selling to farmer agricultural machinery" to "helping farmers improve their harvest."

So where is the invisible value gap of the farmer? Crops need soil, water, humidity, fertilizer, etc., but the soil condition, environmental conditions, and good matching of water and fertilizer are all invisible needs of farmers, and they can provide these for farmers. Information is naturally more competitive. So JohnDeere installed GPS and soil sensor sensors on the farm. Before planting, it can analyze and analyze the composition of each land. The data is transmitted to the cloud through the wireless network to calculate the composition of various fertilizers in each piece of land. Users can obtain reports on soil state analysis and the degree of use of different crops through the APEX? FarmManagement platform, and then provide the type and amount of fertilizer to be applied according to the crops planted by the farmer, and put the fertilizer manufacturers The information tells the farmer to help them place an order online. In this way, while improving the competitiveness of the product, it is also possible to collect the intermediary fee from the fertilizer manufacturer and the management cost of collecting the output value from the farmer. So JohnDeere turned from a company that sells agricultural machinery to a company that sells crop growth management services. Agricultural machinery in countries such as China and Brazil are still fighting for price in the Red Sea, but John Deere has already earned money to provide services in the Blue Ocean.

2. Value-oriented change new thinking GE's aircraft engine company (GEAircraftEngine) changed the company name to "GEAviation" in 2005, which represents the transformation of business model. The original engine company only used the engine, and the renamed GE Aviation provided a complete solution for operation and maintenance management, capability assurance, operational optimization and financial planning. It also provides security controls, flight control, scheduling optimization, and flight information. Forecasting and other types of services, the value space brought by the service is even greater.

For example, the “On-WingSupport” service provided by GE Aviation monitors the health of the engine during flight flight, predicts the risk of possible failures, and prepares for maintenance at the appropriate airport before the aircraft landed. Resources such as spare parts and technicians have greatly improved the use of the engine, and the safety has been well protected. After the launch of the service, flights from Chicago to Shanghai in the United States can take passengers back to Chicago with a three-hour turnaround time. The turnover rate of the flights has greatly increased, which has brought considerable value growth to the airlines. . With these services, GE is selling not just an engine, but an aviation management service. In this way, engine manufacturers have changed from pure engine installation providers in the past to today's shipping information management service providers.

3. What is the value of creating the future?

Now mankind is entering the era of "Industry 4.0", the era in which the physical world and the virtual network world merge. When we talk about the changes brought about by industrial transformation, it is often easy to see the representative technical characteristics, and ignore the original driving force that drives its transformation, that is, the eternal pursuit of value creation. If the first three industrial revolutions have greatly increased productivity from the aspects of mechanization, scale, standardization and automation, then the difference between Industry 4.0 and the previous three industrial revolutions is that it is no longer based on the productivity needs of the manufacturing end, but will The value demand of the client is the starting point of the whole industry chain; changing the previous industrial value chain from the production end to the consumer side, but providing customized products and services from the user's value needs, and using this as the whole industry chain The common goal is to achieve synergy optimization in all aspects of the entire industry chain: the essence of all this is the transformation of the industrial perspective.

In today's manufacturing systems, there are many uncertainties that cannot be quantified and cannot be mastered by decision makers. These uncertainties exist both in the manufacturing process and in the use process outside the manufacturing process. The first three industrial revolutions have mainly solved visible problems, such as avoiding product defects, avoiding processing failures, and improving equipment efficiency and reliability. These problems are often easier to solve in industrial production because they are visible and measurable. However, the invisible problem usually manifests as a decrease in myocardial infarction, a decline in health, wear and tear of parts, and high operational risk. These factors are difficult to quantify through measurement and are uncontrollable risks in industrial production. Most of the visible problems are caused by the accumulation of these invisible factors to a certain extent. Therefore, the focus and competition point of Industry 4.0 is the avoidance and transparent presentation of these invisible factors.

Another feature is the extension of the manufacturing process and manufacturing value to the use process. It is not only concerned with the manufacture of a product, but also how to use this product to achieve greater product value. The value innovation and value creation of the product are no longer oriented to satisfy only the user's visible needs, but also use the user's usage data to create usage scenarios and find the gaps in user requirements (GAP) from the scenario simulation. These are “no”. Visible demand." For example, people who buy a car will put forward fuel-saving needs, and various car manufacturers are therefore committed to improving the car and engine to make the car more fuel-efficient but rarely pay attention to the impact of the user's driving habits on fuel consumption. It can be seen that the market competition in the industry 4.0 era will change from the past to meet the needs of customers to the gap in the search for user demand.

In the past, when we sold our products to customers, we almost reached the end of the production value chain. However, the industry 4.0 era further extended the value chain: using products as a carrier of services, using data as a medium of service, and constantly cultivating users during use. The gap in demand and the use of information generated by data mining to create value for users. Therefore, in the future, the industry will sell to users no longer products, but valuable capabilities. The service industry corresponding to these capabilities is no longer only available to users with limited choices, but is customized according to user usage and needs. The best matching solution, because each user's usage data is customized, which makes the user no longer a sample of the statistical result terminal, but a rich, highly personalized individual.

As a common example, we used to buy insoles just to remember the size, the insoles that everyone gets are the same. But each of us has different foot types, weights, standing postures, and walking habits, so there is no one insole that can meet the needs of everyone at the same size. In the United States, Dr. Scholl`s company will let the user stand on a pedal connected to the sensor before selling the insole to the user. The system will record the pressure distribution of the sole of the user when standing, so that the user can obtain a customized insole. . There is more value space to dig, such as the pressure distribution of the foot pressure data and the pressure distribution of the running are equally important. The data can also be sold to the shoe company, recommending a suitable pair of shoes after buying the insole. Later, if combined with medical research, it can also remind users of the risk of injury to the feet and knees caused by standing postures and running habits, and provide users with suggestions for improving their habits.

Therefore, data is still an important medium for providing customized products for users. The manufacturing of the industry 4.0 era will connect end users with manufacturing systems through data. These data will automatically determine the decisions of all aspects of the production system, and realize the production of upstream and downstream loops. With the integration of the others, the difficulty of people's work will be greatly reduced. Under this model, the organizational structure of the factory will be flat and the utilization of production resources will be more optimized.

4. Business Model and Intelligent Service System - Opportunity Space in the Future Industry Industry 4.0 is not just a revolution in manufacturing, but a deeper change, innovation model, business model, service model, industry chain and value chain. Both speak revolutionary changes. The revolution in manufacturing is only the basic condition for the realization of Industry 4.0. The fundamental driving force comes from the innovation of business models and intelligent service systems, which are the key to future industrial competition. The manufacturing system is like the "yolk" of Industry 4.0. We must work hard to make the "protein" bigger when we do the "yolk".

Laoziyun: "I think it is profitable, I don't think it is useful." If you take a cup to make a metaphor, the space that seems to be "nothing" in the cup is the real carrier of value. Chinese manufacturing must learn to analyze and use the value inside the cup: Although the manufacturing equipment is produced by the Germans, we need to know how to use it. If the Chinese company can analyze the usage data, it can achieve better quality than the German factory. Low cost and low pollution, then the Germans will in turn learn from the Chinese how to use equipment to create value.

Discovering gaps in user value, discovering and managing invisible issues, achieving a worry-free production environment, and providing customized products and services to users are all inseparable from data mining. I believe that the focus of Industry 4.0 will be in China, because China is not only a manufacturing country in the world, but also a big country in the world. Whether it is manufacturing equipment or terminal consumer goods, China has huge usage data. However, these data are not well analyzed and utilized, so they are only potential and have not become truly competitive.

The opportunity space of the future industry can be divided into four parts: one part is to meet the user's visible needs and solve the visible problems. There are still some courses in China that need to be supplemented, such as quality, pollution and waste. It is continuous improvement and continuous improvement of standardization. The second part is to avoid visible problems and to extract new knowledge from the use of data to add value to the original production system and products. The third part is to use innovative methods and techniques to solve unknown problems, such as introspective equipment, and the use of smart bracelets to manage sleep quality. These examples are to make invisible problems transparent and then manage and solve them. Invisible problem. The fourth part is to find and meet the invisible value gap and avoid the influence of invisible factors. This part needs to use the functional information generated by data analysis to create new knowledge and value, which is the ultimate goal of Industry 4.0.

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